ALBERT BLOCH (American, 1882-1961)
    Pierrot, 1911
    Oil on canvas
    26-3/4 x 17-1/2 inches (67.9 x 44.5 cm)
    Signed upper left: Albert Bloch
    Dated verso: October / 1911


    The artist;
    Estate of the above;
    Mrs. Albert Bloch, the artist's wife, Kansas, by bequest from the above;
    [With] Scott Heffley, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri;
    Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York;
    Private collection, Kansas;
    Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York;
    Acquired by the present owner from the above, October 2002.

    Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York, "Concerning Expressionism: American Modernism and the German Avant-Garde," May 20-July 31, 1998;
    El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, Texas, "Modern American Painting 1907-1936: The Maria and Barry King Collection," September 8, 2013-January 8, 2014, no. 21.

    H. Adams, M. Conrads and A. Hoberg, eds. [with] Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York, Albert Bloch: The American Blue Rider, Munich, 1997, pp. 27-28, illustrated;
    Hollis Taggart Galleries, Concerning Expressionism: American Modernism and the German Avant-Garde, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1998, p. 41, pl. 13, illustrated;
    P.S. Cable, Modern American Painting 1907-1936: The Maria and Barry King Collection, exhibition catalogue, El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, Texas, 2013, pp. 68-70, no. 21, illustrated.

    The only American artist associated with the German modernist group Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), Albert Bloch is known for Expressionist figurative paintings infused with spiritual feeling. Throughout his career, Bloch destroyed any paintings that, from his point of view, were unsuccessful. Regrettably, many more early works in German collections were destroyed in the bombings of World War II, while others were banished to Switzerland by the Nazis as "degenerate art." Extant examples of his work from this early period are rare and valuable historical documents. Pierrot, from 1911, is one of Bloch's earliest known surviving Modernist paintings.

    Born in St. Louis, Missouri, of Czechoslovakian and German-Jewish ancestry, Albert Bloch spent his formative years in the Midwest. He first studied art at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts. Like many of his contemporaries, Bloch earned a living from commercial art, and between 1905 and 1908, he worked as a caricaturist and illustrator for William Marion Reedy's literary and political weekly, The Mirror. Noticing Bloch's artistic talent, Reedy provided him with a monthly stipend to study abroad. At the beginning of 1909, Bloch sailed for Europe.

    Between 1909 and 1921, Bloch lived and worked mainly in Germany, making brief visits to other countries on the Continent and to America. His decision to settle in Munich, then a thriving art center, rested largely on his language skills--he had learned German from his parents. Although Reedy pressed Bloch to attend classes at the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich, Bloch never enrolled, preferring instead to take lessons from painters working in the academic style outside the academy.

    Initially Bloch displayed little interest in the revolutionary aesthetics that had been advanced in European art around the turn of the century, but a 1910 trip to Paris opened his eyes to the works of Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Odilon Redon. The following year, he saw a catalogue of the second exhibition of the Neue K√ľnstlervereinigung M√ľnchen (the New Artists' Union of Munich), which included reproductions of works by, among others, Picasso, Georges Braque, Georges Rouault, and Wassily Kandinsky. Bloch felt an immediate kinship with these artists. He soon met Kandinsky and Franz Marc, both of whom invited him to participate in the first exhibition of Der Blaue Reiter, a group of Modernist artists who broke away from Neue K√ľnstlervereinigung. With his contribution of six canvases, Bloch was the only American represented in the show, which was held in December 1911 at Munich's Thannhauser Gallery. The Blaue Reiter artists had no formal manifesto, but they shared a desire to express emotional and spiritual truth through painting and, in particular, through symbolic use of color. The group, active from 1911 to 1914, represents one current in the broader expressionist impulse that spread through Germany and beyond in the first half of the twentieth century.

    Bloch established a successful career in Germany and remained there, exhibiting his work through World War I. In 1912, he showed at the second Blaue Reiter exhibition, and he was included in the 1912 Sonderbund Exhibition in Cologne, the most famous exhibition of modernism in Europe at that time. The only painting by Bloch accepted for this show was Duel (fig. 1), a 1912 painting that recalls Edvard Munch's haunting and mysterious figurative works. That same year, Bloch showed at Herwarth Walden's Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin, participating in a small exhibition that featured paintings rejected from the Sonderbund exhibit. Walden, one of the foremost proponents of Modernism in Europe, fashioned this 1912 exhibition as a protest against the Sonderbund show that, he believed, had not adequately represented members of the Blaue Reiter group.

    Bloch's acclaim also reached the American art world. At Kandinsky's recommendation, Arthur Jerome Eddy, the Chicago collector and tireless promoter of Modernism, began buying Bloch's paintings and eventually added more than twenty-five of them to his collection. In 1915, Eddy's collection of paintings by Bloch composed one-man show at the Art Institute of Chicago; the exhibition also traveled to the St. Louis Art Museum.

    In 1921, disheartened at what Germany had become after the war, Bloch returned to the United States, where he lived until his death in 1961. Finding himself in dire financial straits, Bloch decided to become a teacher. His first position began in 1922 at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, but lasted only one year. From 1923 until his retirement in 1947, Bloch was Professor and Head of the Department of Drawing and Painting at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. Bloch continued to live in Lawrence until his death in 1961.

    Painted in October 1911 at the start of Bloch's immersion into the Blaue Reiter, "Pierrot treats one of the artist's favorite themes, a figure from the Italian commedia dell'arte that is frequently associated with French art of the early twentieth century. Pierrots, harlequins, and clowns recurred throughout Bloch's oeuvre, alternating with religious scenes, landscapes and cityscapes...In the present canvas, Pierrot's upper body and large hands bend in an awkwardly sentient manner amidst the turbulent brushwork of the background, almost like a plant or similar life form reacting to unseen stimuli. The emotive body recalls the following words used to describe Bloch's figures in 1913: 'misshapen, embryonic creatures...intense postures of love or yearning'" (P.S. Cable, Modern American Painting 1907-1936: The Maria and Barry King Collection, exhibition catalogue, El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, Texas, 2013, p 70). Indeed, Bloch's Pierrot encapsulates the fearless and unabashed spirit of one of the most avant-garde, yet obscure American Modernists.

    Estimate: $80,000 - $120,000.

    Condition Report*:

    This painting is framed using Optium (museum acrylic glazing), which provides clear legibility for examination with both white light and black light. In order to maintain the integrity and airtight sealing of the housing, the painting was not viewed out of the frame for the condition report. Should you wish to have a more extensive report, we recommend firsthand inspection by a professional conservator. For assistance, please contact the department.

    *Heritage Auctions strives to provide as much information as possible but encourages in-person inspection by bidders. Statements regarding the condition of objects are only for general guidance and should not be relied upon as complete statements of fact, and do not constitute a representation, warranty or assumption of liability by Heritage. Please note that we do not de-frame lots estimated at $1,000 or less and may not be able to provide additional details for lots valued under $500. All lots are sold "AS IS" under the Terms & Conditions of Auction.

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